Energy Evolution Program

Sunday, November 23, 2014

Transitions between states of matter: It's more complicated, scientists find



Transitions between states of matter: It's more complicated, scientists find


The seemingly simple process of phase changes-those transitions between states of matter-is more complex than previously known, NYU Chemistry Professor Mark Tuckerman and his colleagues have found. Their study reveals the need to rethink one of science's building blocks and, with it, how some of the basic principles underlying the behavior of matter are taught in our classrooms.

In all this new complexity, where does the role of photons, energy levels, and escape velocity of electrons come in to play, in determining the gas or solid state of matter?   (The liquid state of matter is not, in the strictest sense of the word, a true state of matter at all because it is dependent almost entirely upon exterior influences). 
As research discovers new twists and turns of a river, why disconnect from the river?

"This research shows that phase changes can follow multiple pathways, which is counter to what we've previously known," explains Mark Tuckerman, a professor of chemistry and applied mathematics at New York University and one of the study's co-authors. "This means the simple theories about phase transitions that we teach in classes are just not right."


Back to the ‘river’, fundamental basics, and google with awe the twists and turns.

Before going farther in our study of the phenomenon which we call heat, it might be well to consider briefly, the three states of matter which result from the various degrees of heat energy or temperature which the matter may possess at a given time.

Let us consider first, a quantity, or block of atoms or molecules in which the total number of photons contained is small. The orbits of the electrons, and therefore the size of the atom is also small. The oscillation or ‘bouncing’ of each atom will continue, but the path of each bounce will be small because the atoms or molecules are quite close together, and their critical distance is small. Since none of the particles reach escape velocity, each particle will remain in the same relative position with respect to the others. The mass will retain its shape indefinitely, and a considerable amount of outside force would have to be applied to cause the body to change in shape. This condition is known as the solid state of matter.

If, to such a block of matter, we suddenly added a large quantity of energy in the form of photons, the orbits of the atoms would spring outward, the velocity of their oscillation would increase tremendously, and soon every particle would acquire a velocity greater than its escape velocity. The particles in the interior of the mass could not immediately escape because they would still be bouncing about among their neighbors, but the field of each particle would now be repelling all of its neighbors, and the mass would expand rapidly. The particles on the outside of the mass would move outward indefinitely, leaving the next layer free to escape and so on. Matter in this condition is known as ‘gas.’

Specifically, a gas is defined as being a body of matter in which all, or virtually all of its particles have velocities in excess of the escape velocity for the particular conditions in which they exist.
We can readily see that a gas, if released in a vacuum, will expand indefinitely, and if released within a solid container will expand until it is uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the container. Each atom or molecule, upon colliding with another, will glance off in a new direction, and will continue in that direction until another collision occurs.

The average, or ‘mean’ distance which a particle travels between such collisions is know as ‘the mean free path.’ In a dense, or ‘compressed’ gas the mean free path would be a very tiny fraction of an inch, but in a very rarified gas, it might be many feet.

The liquid state of matter is not, in the strictest sense of the word, a true state of matter at all because it is dependent almost entirely upon exterior influences, such as the earth’s gravitational field, its atmospheric pressure, etc. If we were to take a sample of almost any liquid to a remote point in space where there were no gravitational fields or atmosphere to affect the sample we would find that, even though we maintained the temperature at the same level, the liquid would have the characteristics either of a soft solid or of a gas.

A liquid can be defined as a body of matter whose particles have velocities either slightly below or slightly above their natural escape velocity. Most oils or liquid metals, for instance, can be described as matter whose particle velocities are so close to that of escape that the additional force applied by a gravitational field such as that of the earth is sufficient to cause the particles to escape, or ‘flow’ in the direction of the force applied by the field. If such matter were removed from the influence of exterior fields, and released in space, it would immediately assume the shape of a sphere, which shape it would retain indefinitely so long as no exterior force were brought to bear. It would, therefore have the characteristics of a very soft solid.

A glass of ordinary water, on the other hand, has the characteristics of a gas, which is prevented from expanding by the pressure of the atmosphere around it.

We can demonstrate this if we take a glass of water which is at, say 100 degrees Fahrenheit, place it in a bell jar, and suddenly remove the air from the jar. The water will immediately begin to boil quite briskly. If we maintain the temperature of the water at 100 degrees and pump out the gas as it is formed, the glass will soon be empty, demonstrating that its particles do have velocities above those necessary for escape. Actually, even though we do not remove the air, molecules of the water will constantly be escaping from the surface in spite of the downward bombardment of the air molecules, and the glass would eventually become empty. This, much slower process of escape by the mingling of the molecules of a liquid with the molecules of a surrounding gas is known as evaporation.


Saturday, November 22, 2014

BICEP2 all over again? Researchers place Higgs boson discovery in doubt

Phys.org shared a link.

BICEP2 all over again? Researchers place Higgs boson discovery in doubt
Nov 21, 2014 by Tim Reyes, Universe Today
This is the signature of one of 100s of trillions of particle collisions detected at the Large Hadron Collider. Their combined analysis led to the discovery of the Higgs Boson. This article describes work by one research group in dissension with the results. Credit: CERN
At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe, faster is better. Faster means more powerful particle collisions and looking deeper into the makeup of matter. However, other researchers are proclaiming not so fast. LHC may not have discovered the Higgs Boson, the boson that imparts mass to everything, the god particle as some have called it.  Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-11-bicep2-higgs-boson-discovery.html#jCp

When did physics become so disconnectedly complex that it forgot its own definition of infinity? 

Bigger and bigger bangs and caveman clubs will continue to get you smaller pieces – TO INFINITY.

Explain how you will get to the smallest particle and reach infinity!

Cut the farce and waste of money.

Look at fractals, self similarity, chaos to order, as above so below – and include scale variance, especially at differentials approaching, at, and exceeding the the velocity of light energy differential between any two or more reference points. You will find it impossible to get a clear view of Reality when excluding any aspect of space time mass matter energy gravity in a common frequency denominator immersed within the role of the Radius of Curvature of All Natural Law, the quantity C, velocity of light energy differential.  The LET THERE BE LIGHT, has now become crucial to physics to understand the further boundaries of E=MC2. 

Quantum Reality - The Limitless Potential Within Everything 
Nobel Prize winning physicists have proven beyond doubt that the physical world is one large sea of energy that flashes into and out of being in milliseconds, over and over again. Read More: http://www.whydontyoutrythis.com/2013/10/quantum-reality-the-limitless-potential-within-everything.html

Review


Advanced, evolving concepts of ‘black holes’, zero point, dark energy/matter: Unified Physics – Articles, Reviews  http://resonance.is/unified-physics/articles-reviews
The Resonance Project‘s William Brown has written a response to the recent Hawking paper that clarifies what Hawking actually did say and how these new observations are moving the standard model of black holes closer and closer toward the model and predictions that Nassim Haramein has been making about black holes for many years. 
http://resonance.is/stephen-hawking-goes-grey-2/   Some exciting new developments are occurring right now in the highest levels of physics that are converging directly with Haramein’s work on quantum black holes. Inevitably, the study of the physical Universe will lead to the correct answers, no matter how strange it may appear…

Summation of Fundamental Principle VC:
        The simple unity of matter and energy: Consider a geometric plane surface having two dimensions. If this plane is perpendicular to your line of sight you perceive it as a plane surface, the matter aspect. If now you rotate the plane through an angle of ninety degrees, the surface will disappear from your sight, leaving only one dimension, the energy aspect. You have not changed the plane in any way. You have merely changed your point of view, or technically, you have changed your point of reference. The amount of energy which is apparently contained by a given body of matter depends entirely upon how far it has rotated upon the mass energy axis (defined by the quantity C, the radius of curvature of all natural law) with respect to the given observer. Another observer, observing the same body from a different reference point, would find an entirely different amount of energy. 
        ENERGY: We will define energy as the ability to create changes in the position or condition of objects or points of reference. However, energy can create change, only when there exists a differential in the two points between which the change becomes manifest, or when the unit of energy has become divided into its two component parts called poles, or charges. One positive and one negative pole or charge, when united, constitute one photon or quantum of energy. (definitions  of the natural laws: space time mass matter energy gravity)
        The Quantity C, the speed of light energy differential, is the pivotal point upon which the natural laws become manifest
        The Quantity C is the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter.
        The Quantity C manifests as electromagnetic radiation covering a tremendous range of frequencies (also, each different type of atom has its own characteristic set of frequencies http://exploringenergyevolution.blogspot.com/2013/12/atoms-to-galaxies.html)
        The Quantity C is the radius of the curvature of natural law, meaning if a differential of energy equal to this quantity exists between the observer and the point which he is observing, the natural laws will be suspended. If the energy differential is in excess of the quantity C, the laws will appear to operate in reverse at that point.  
        The Quantity C is also the velocity at which the universe folds and unfolds, from the STILL POINT – between the infinitely large and infinitely small  –  between Barbara Dewey’s “Big Blink” of the constant moving instant ‘Now’, ‘Now’ – or Walter Russell’s “point of rest” between the stages of unfoldment and refoldment, the cycles of ‘genero-activity’ contraction of gravity, at the inner explosive speed of light -  and radioactive expansion of vacuity, at the outer explosive speed of light.



Thursday, November 20, 2014

Physicists study magnetism with the roles of position and momentum reversed

First faint glimpse of relationships in Physics?

(i.e., space time mass matter energy fields - gravitic/electric/magnetic, totally interdependent to and of each other, governed by the radius of curvature, the quantity C in a +/- sine wave format)


momentum space magnetism


Physicists study magnetism with the roles of  position and momentum reversed  by Lisa Zyga feature

(Phys.org) —Normally, the strength of a magnetic field increases as you get closer to a magnet and decreases as you move further away—a concept easily understood when placing magnets near a refrigerator, for instance. But recent research has shown that exotic "momentum-space artificial magnetic fields" can be created where the strength of the magnetic field depends on how fast a particle moves, instead of where the particle is. In other words, the roles of position and momentum are swapped.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-11-physicists-magnetism-roles-position-momentum.html#jCp


Slightly exaggerated analogy of the disconnected and cumbersome steps physics takes to get closer to simple reality: 
Goal - to get to the back stairs of my house
Solution - go out the front door, keep going around the world until back stairs are reached














A Far easier way:

INTERPRETATION OF THE EFFECTS  “  The quantity C (velocity of light), the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter” HAS UPON OUR VIEWING AND MEASUREMENT INTERPRETATIONS AND BELIEFS.





New Physics Fad Growing in Popularity: Cloaking, Invisibility










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'Cloaking' device uses ordinary lenses to hide objects across continuous range of angles Inspired perhaps by Harry Potter's invisibility cloak, scientists have recently developed several ways—some simple and some involving new technologies—to hide objects from view. The latest effort, developed at the University of Rochester, not only overcomes some of the limitations of previous devices, but it uses inexpensive, readily available materials in a novel configuration.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-11-cloaking-device-ordinary-lenses-range.html#jCp 
PHYS.ORG

Per previous post....we have a ways to go to comprehend the broader possibilities.

Adding to the The Invisibility Factor
A side note into the properties of light: Several ways in which almost any matter can be made transparent



 
Most metals are opaque , but there are several ways in which almost any matter can be made transparent http://www.uotechnology.edu.iq/appsciences/filesPDF/material/lectures/2c/3-Materials_prperties8.pdf


Ordinary glass is just as dense as many metals and harder than most and yet transmits light quite readily. Most matter is opaque to light because the photons of light are captured and absorbed in the electron orbits of the atoms through which they pass. This capture will occur whenever the frequency of the photon matches one of the frequencies of the atom. The energy thus stored is then re-emitted, but usually in the infra-red portion of the spectrum, and so cannot be seen as light.
There are several ways in which almost any matter can be made transparent, or at least translucent. One method is to create a field matrix between the atoms which will tend to prevent the photon from being absorbed.  (Such a matrix develops in many substances during crystallization.) Another is to raise the frequency of the atoms above the highest absorption frequency of the atoms. (based upon current knowledge of light and matter, the reader should be able to extrapolate from here)


WHICH WILL REQUIRE INTERPRETATION OF THE EFFECTS  “  The quantity C (velocity of light), the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter” HAS UPON OUR VIEWING AND MEASUREMENT INTERPRETATIONS AND BELIEFS.




Friday, November 14, 2014

Gravity Modification - Creating the discipline of gravity design

Facebook Forward
Looking ahead. gMOD: gravity modification - University of Minnesota - Gravity Modification based upon Extended Heim Theory (EHT),http://gravitymodification.com/ ...... blog.lib.umn.edu/daigl024/discussions
Gravity Modification suggests a new design discipline based in the physicality of manipulating gravity-like fields to create new opportunities in product design,...
GRAVITYMODIFICATION.COM
LikeLike ·  · 

Anti-gravity Effect? Gravitational Equivalent Of A Magnetic Field

Back by popular demand - 'Electrogravitics' with a twist? 

Now moving toward gravity modification (gMOD: gravity modification - University of Minnesota).

Facebook Forward 
Scientists funded by the European Space Agency have measured the gravitational equivalent of a magnetic...
SCIENCEDAILY.COM

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Future of Flight - Are the Doors Opening?

Concept images reveal how we'll glide across the sky in electric aeroplanes by 2050 


Perhaps, we will also abandon the obsolete and inefficient concept of reaction propulsion and replace it with the concept of field propulsion, the natural and universal means of producing kinetic energy differentials.


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HOW WILL AEROPLANES BE POWERED IN 2050? 

Engineers predict that aircraft will be electric by 2050.



Air traffic and greenhouse gas emissions are rising, leading aircraft designers to devise new aeroplane designs such as this blended wing body thought up by experts at Nasa and Boeing
The wings of future aircraft may be a completely different shape from those of today, or even flexible like those of birds. This concept plane  2050 concept plane by Airbus has flexible wings and an unusually-shaped tail


Adding to the The Invisibility Factor
A side note into the properties of light: Several ways in which almost any matter can be made transparent



 
Most metals are opaque , but there are several ways in which almost any matter can be made transparent http://www.uotechnology.edu.iq/appsciences/filesPDF/material/lectures/2c/3-Materials_prperties8.pdf


Ordinary glass is just as dense as many metals and harder than most and yet transmits light quite readily. Most matter is opaque to light because the photons of light are captured and absorbed in the electron orbits of the atoms through which they pass. This capture will occur whenever the frequency of the photon matches one of the frequencies of the atom. The energy thus stored is then re-emitted, but usually in the infra-red portion of the spectrum, and so cannot be seen as light.
There are several ways in which almost any matter can be made transparent, or at least translucent. One method is to create a field matrix between the atoms which will tend to prevent the photon from being absorbed.  (Such a matrix develops in many substances during crystallization.) Another is to raise the frequency of the atoms above the highest absorption frequency of the atoms. (based upon current knowledge of light and matter, the reader should be able to extrapolate from here)