Fusion Laser – Omega - Z Machine – Hadron - SpaceX … All Big Bang, Boom Boom, and Eventual Bust?
arxiv.org › physics
Perimeter Institute Paving the Road Past 2D Short Sighted Boom Boom Vision?
PERIMETER PARTICLE PHYSICIST EARNS EARLY RESEARCHER AWARD - Arvanitaki, who holds the inaugural Stravros Niarchos Foundation Aristarchus Chair at Perimeter Institute, is exploring novel experimental approaches to particle physics that may be done with small-scale experiments rather than enormous colliders.
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· AN ALTERNATIVE TO BIG BOOM BOOM APPROACH Gravity – As Viewed Through the Radius (VC)
There is conclusive evidence that the attraction, called the binding energy, which exists between the Newtonian particles, (the protons and the neutrons) is intense almost beyond our ability to describe. This force, however, does not increase uniformly with increasing mass, but at certain points not only reaches zero but actually becomes negative.
We can demonstrate this fact by adding a single unit of Newtonian mass, a neutron, to the nucleus of an atom of Uranium 235. When this is done, we find that the gravitational force within the nucleus, instead of increasing actually becomes negative, that is, the attraction between its parts becomes a repulsion, and the parts begin to separate with considerable brisance. During the expansion, however, several new centers of gravity are formed, which, because of the smaller amount of mass involved in each, are strongly positive. The result is that two or more simpler atoms are formed, plus a few neutrons which have acquired too great a velocity to be captured by this regrouping process.
In most text books, this phenomenon is described as the 'splitting' of the atom. There is an implication that it is the 'impact', or the kinetic energy of the neutron which causes the atom to split. If this were true, then obviously, a high speed neutron would split the atom more easily and surely than one with much lower speed. Actually, the opposite situation is true. The high speed neutron will not split the uranium atom at all. It must be slowed to thermal velocity so that it can settle into the nucleus before fission occurs.
Occasionally a neutron will be captured by a uranium atom, without falling directly into the nucleus. The neutron may orbit the nucleus for a very long time (as time is counted in nuclear physics), perhaps several seconds or even minutes. Eventually the neutron drops into the nucleus, and 'delayed fission' occurs, again demonstrating the fact that it is not the impact of the neutron, but its presence in the nucleus, which results in its expansion.
The expansion and subsequent condensation into several simpler atoms is a completely random process. Many simpler types of atom can, and do result from the condensation, in each case however, the smaller atoms cannot contain as many neutrons in proportion to the number of protons as the larger atom, so there are always several neutrons left over.
This phenomenon, if carefully examined and considered, will furnish several strong clues to the nature of gravity itself, but let us for the moment, content ourselves with the observation that it demonstrates that a gravitational field can, under certain conditions, become negative.
In the meantime, the University of Rochester’s Omega laser and Sandia National Laboratories’ Z machine—both also supported by the NNSA’s inertial confinement fusion program—continue research on alternative approaches to ignition. Omega, a glass laser like NIF, uses direct drive, which brings beams to impinge directly on targets; Z uses electromagnetic fields to produce implosions.
Answers reside in a 3D version (analogy) of the current 'flat' concept of E=mc2, along with much needed, integrated, refined, and redefined views of space time mass matter energy gravity. Any questions the reader may have on this subject can only be intelligently discussed when the following 4th grade level concepts pertaining to "the radius of curvature of all natural law' are read, and light, the C in mc2 is recognized as this radius - a concept understood in the distant past and symbolized, staring us in the face for thousands of years, in the sine wave of the Yin Yang.
FOR A FASTER MERGER PACE OF PAST AND PRESENT - Here is How
A more refined view of E=MC2 discloses Light (C) as The Radius of Curvature of All Natural Law, equating to the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter
meaning if a differential of energy equal to this quantity exists between the observer and the point which he is observing, the natural laws will be suspended. If the energy differential is in excess of the quantity C, the laws will appear to operate in reverse at that point.
The far more fundamental and simpler definitions of space time mass matter energy gravity become mandatory:
- The Quantity C: Possessing a Significance Far Greater than Attributed
- Gravity – As Viewed Through the Radius (VC)
- Space as Observed through the Curve of Radius Light
- Matter and Mass – Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass
- Beyond A Uni-Dimensional Perception of TIME
- The Nonlinearity of Physical Law