Frank Close has a question. "If you step off the top of a cliff, how does the Earth down there 'know' you are up there for it to attract you?" It's a question that has taxed many illustrious minds before him. Newton's law of gravitation first allowed such apparently instantaneous "action at a distance", but he himself was not a fan, describing it in a letter as "so great an Absurdity that I believe no Man who has in philosophical Matters a competent Faculty of thinking can ever fall into it".
Today we ascribe such absurdities to fields. "The idea of some physical mediation - a field of influence - is more satisfying," says Close, a physicist at the University of Oxford. Earth's gravitational field, for example, extends out into space in all directions, tugging at smaller objects like the moon and us on top of a cliff; the Earth itself is under the spell of the sun's gravitational field.
But hang on: what exactly is a field?
On one level, it is just a map. "Ultimately, a field is something that depends on position," says Frank Wilczek, a theoretical physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A gravitational field tells us the strength of gravity at different points in space. Temperatures or isobars on a weather chart are a field. A field is a mathematical abstraction - numbers spread over space.
But there is more to it than that. Witness what physicist Michael Faraday saw in the 19th century, and many a schoolkid has since: iron filings neatly ordering themselves along the lines of a magnetic field, reaching out into space from the magnet itself and influencing nearby objects (though at the speed of light, not instantaneously). "It made a huge impression on Faraday, that this strange thing had a physical reality," says Wilczek.
Arguably the modern world is built on the principle of electromagnetic induction that Faraday developed out of his new understanding of fields: magnetic fields and electric fields power the motors of our civilisation. A mere abstraction?
The modern era has shed some further light on fields, but also added confusion. Quantum fields - ultimately, the electromagnetic field is one - have tangible products in the form of particles, which pop up as disturbances within them. For the electromagnetic field, this entity is the photon. The Higgs field, long postulated to pervade empty space and to give elementary particles their mass, was discovered in 2012 by squeezing out its particles in high-energy collisions.
But quantum fields are complicated beasts, formed of "superpositions" of many classical fields. That's far away from anything we can envisage as a map, or delineate as neat lines. "At that point I have to rely on equations," says Wilczek, who won a Nobel prize for his work on the quantum fields of the strong nuclear force.
One thing's for sure: fields are everywhere. Quantum theory teaches us that even seemingly empty space is a roiling broth of fields and their associated particles. "The idea that nothing's there is extremely naive," says Wilczek. Aside from anything else, fields are the proof that nature does indeed abhor a vacuum.
Summation of Fundamental Principle VC:
Radius of Curvature of all Natural Law:
The Quantity C: Possessing a Significance Far Greater than Attributed
Gravity – As Viewed Through the Radius (VC)
Space as Observed through the Curve of Radius Light
Matter and Mass - Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass
Beyond A Uni-Dimensional Perception of TIME
The Nonlinearity of Physical Law
The simple unity of matter and energy: Consider a geometric plane surface having two dimensions. If this plane is perpendicular to your line of sight you perceive it as a plane surface, the matter aspect. If now you rotate the plane through an angle of ninety degrees, the surface will disappear from your sight, leaving only one dimension, the energy aspect. You have not changed the plane in any way. You have merely changed your point of view, or technically, you have changed your point of reference. The amount of energy which is apparently contained by a given body of matter depends entirely upon how far it has rotated upon the mass energy axis (defined by the quantity C, the radius of curvature of all natural law) with respect to the given observer. Another observer, observing the same body from a different reference point, would find an entirely different amount of energy.
ENERGY: We will define energy as the ability to create changes in the position or condition of objects or points of reference. However, energy can create change, only when there exists a differential in the two points between which the change becomes manifest, or when the unit of energy has become divided into its two component parts called poles, or charges. One positive and one negative pole or charge, when united, constitute one photon or quantum of energy. (definitions of the natural laws: space time mass matter energy gravity)
The Quantity C, the speed of light energy differential, is the pivotal point upon which the natural laws become manifest
The Quantity C is the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter.
The Quantity C manifests as electromagnetic radiation covering a tremendous range of frequencies (also, each different type of atom has its own characteristic set of frequencies http://exploringenergyevolution.blogspot.com/2013/12/atoms-to-galaxies.html)
The Quantity C is the radius of the curvature of natural law, meaning if a differential of energy equal to this quantity exists between the observer and the point which he is observing, the natural laws will be suspended. If the energy differential is in excess of the quantity C, the laws will appear to operate in reverse at that point.
The Quantity C is also the velocity at which the universe folds and unfolds, from the STILL POINT – between the infinitely large and infinitely small – between Barbara Dewey’s “Big Blink” of the constant moving instant ‘Now’, ‘Now’ – or Walter Russell’s “point of rest” between the stages of unfoldment and refoldment, the cycles of ‘genero-activity’ contraction of gravity, at the inner explosive speed of light - and radioactive expansion of vacuity, at the outer explosive speed of light.
Advanced, evolving concepts of ‘black holes’, zero point, dark energy/matter: Unified Physics – Articles, Reviews http://resonance.is/unified-physics/articles-reviews
The Resonance Project‘s William Brown has written a response to the recent Hawking paper that clarifies what Hawking actually did say and how these new observations are moving the standard model of black holes closer and closer toward the model and predictions that Nassim Haramein has been making about black holes for many years.http://resonance.is/stephen-hawking-goes-grey-2/ Some exciting new developments are occurring right now in the highest levels of physics that are converging directly with Haramein’s work on quantum black holes. Inevitably, the study of the physical Universe will lead to the correct answers, no matter how strange it may appear…